With regard to the protection of integrated circuit designs, the agreement obliges the parties to grant protection on the basis of washington`s intellectual property contract for integrated circuits, which was opened for signature in May 1989, but with a number of additions: protection must be available for a minimum period of ten years; Fees should extend to items with offensive layout designs; Innocent offenders must be able to order shares on hand or on order before they know of the violation of an appropriate fee: compulsory licences and state use are only permitted under a number of strict conditions. Overall, the results of the negotiations provide a framework for long-term reform of agricultural trade and domestic policy in the years to come. This is a decisive step towards the goal of a greater orientation towards the agricultural trade market. Agricultural trade rules will be strengthened, which will enhance predictability and stability for import and export countries. Regular monitoring of the national trade policy of WTO members is an important part of the TPRB`s work within the Framework Of the General Council. The objectives of the TPRM are a regular follow-up: the agreement breaks down major avenues in the introduction of a ban on so-called “shadow zones” measures and in the definition of a “sunset clause” for all protection measures. The agreement provides that a member cannot request, take or maintain voluntary export restrictions, orderly marketing agreements or similar measures on the export or import side. Any such measure, which came into force on the date the agreement came into force, would be aligned with that agreement or would have to expire within four years of the WTO agreement coming into force. A waiver could be provided for each importing member, provided the expiry is made on December 31, 1999. Despite the importance of these other interest groups, the Uruguay Round discussions were marked by differences between the United States and the EC, the solution of which determined the pace of progress towards an agreement. With regard to the implementation of the agreement, it provides for a one-year transitional period for industrialized countries in order to bring their laws and practices into line. Developing countries and countries transitioning from a centralized market economy to a market economy would benefit from a five-year transitional period and the least developed countries would benefit from an 11-year transitional period. Developing countries that do not currently grant product patents in a technological field would have up to ten years to implement such protection.
However, for pharmaceutical and agricultural chemicals, they must accept patent applications at the beginning of the transitional period. Although the patent must not be issued until the end of this period, the novelty of the invention is retained from the date the application is filed. If, during the transitional period, an authorization to market the pharmaceutical or agricultural chemical concerned is granted, the developing country concerned must offer an exclusive marketing right for the product for a period of five years or until a product patent is obtained, with the shortest date being chosen.